MALS Indigenous Language Resources Compendia

From its inception, MALS has collected various Indigenous language resources in order to make them available to practitioners and to provide an overview of existing language practices. These resources are updated on an ongoing basis and categorized under the following headings:

Educational Resources for Teachers and Learners - There is an abundance of educational resources dedicated to the preservation of Indigenous languages. These range from formal textbooks, to community developed learning materials, to audio video resources, and computer software. This compendium in particular is updated on a continual basis as new resources are identified.

Language Acts - In recent years, many communities have developed Language Acts in an effort to provide legislative support to existing language preservation initiatives.  A language act is essentially a statement which endorses the use of a particular indigenous language as the primary language of communication for a given community, group, or Nation.

Statistics on Indigenous Languages - The National Household Survey and other statistical studies provide insight into the state of Indigenous languages at the national, provincial, and local level. These surveys index factors such as the primary language spoken in the home, the ability to converse in an Indigenous language, and the incidence of Indigenous languages as mother tongues.

Provincial and Territorial Indigenous Language Initiatives – Certain provincial and territorial governments have developed various reports and initiatives related to the revitalization of their respective Indigenous languages. While few of these have been officially legislated, most offer a road map outlining possible revitalization efforts.

Second Language Acquisition Research - Second language acquisition research focuses on the process of second language acquisition, regardless of the language being learned. These studies provide valuable insight, and outline successful strategies and approaches which Indigenous language instructors and learners may not be familiar with. The Pimsleur approach, for example, is widely used as a methodology promoting rapid second language fluency, and its tenets could easily be adapted for use in any Indigenous language program.

Academic Theses and Dissertations Related to Specific Indigenous Languages - There are a wealth of theses and dissertations focused on various aspects of Indigenous languages. From local revitalization efforts, to innovative instructional approaches, to variations in dialects within particular languages, academic research is a readily available, but underutilized resource.

Annotated Bibliographies and Literature Reviews - As the field of Indigenous language literature is so vast and ever-evolving, literature reviews, and area-specific annotated bibliographies are useful research tools. Manitoba Aboriginal Languages Annotated Bibliography (Aadobe pdf1.9 MB)


Manitoba Aboriginal Languages Strategy Survey (adobe pdf 926 KB)


Indigenous Language Teacher Training Program (ILTTP) – Phase 1 (adobe pdf 792 KB)

Aboriginal Language Teacher Education Program (ALTEP) – Phase 2 (adobe pdf 1.7 MB)


Abraham, Rawnda. 2010. “Nim-Bii-Go-Nini Ojibwe Language Revitalization Strategy: Families Learning our Language at Home.(adobe pdf 1.4 MB) Master’s thesis, Lakehead University.

Anderson, Gregory, D.S. 2011. “Language Hotspots: what (applied) linguistics and education should do about language endangerment in the twenty-first century.” (adobe pdf 349 KB) Language and Education 25, 4: 273-289. DOI: 10.1080/09500782.2011.577218

Assembly of First Nations. 2007. “National First Nations Language Strategy." (adobe pdf 141 KB)

Aylward, M. Lynn. 2010. “The Role of Inuit Languages in Nunavut Schooling: Nunavut Teachers Talk About Bilingual Education.” (adobe pdf 382 KB) Canadian Journal of Education 33, 2: 295-328.

Baker-Williams, Kirsten. 2006. “Na Mi K’anatsut Ta Skwxwu7mesh Snichim Chet: Squamish Language Revitalization: From the Hearts and the Minds of the Language Speakers.” (adobe pdf 5.9 KB) Master’s thesis, University of British Columbia.

Ball, Jessica. 2006. “Talking Point: Exploring Needs and Concepts for Aboriginal Early Childhood Language Facilitation and Supports. Concept Discussion Paper for the Public Health Agency of Canada, Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities.(adobe pdf863 KB)

Baloy, Natalie Jean-Keiser. 2008. “Exploring the Potential for Native Language Revitalization in an Urban Context: Language Education in Vancouver.” (adobe pdf564 KB) Master’s thesis, University of British Columbia.

Basham, Charlotte and Ann.K. Fathman. 2008. “Latent Speaker:: Attaining Adult Fluency in an Endangered Language.” (adobe pdf200 KB) International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 1, 15: 577-597.

Begay, Winoka Rose. 2013. “Mobile Apps and Indigenous Language Learning: New Developments in the Field of Indigenous Language Revitalization.” (adobe pdf1.83 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Arizona.

Billy, Janice. 2009. “Back from the Brink: Decolonizing Through the Restoration of Secwepemc Language, Culture, and Identity.” (adobe pdf945 KB) PhD diss., Simon Fraser University.

Bourget, Nicolle. 2014. “The Role of Information and Communication Technology within Upriver Halq’eméylem Language Initiatives: A Case Study.” (adobe pdf1.32 MB) PhD diss., Royal Roads University.

Canada Council for the Arts. 2012. “We Have to Hear Their Voices: A Research Project on Aboriginal Languages and Art Practices .” (adobe pdf484 KB)

Cardinal, Lorraine. 2002. “Cultural Identity and Language Retention: Traditional and Contemporary Tensions.” (adobe pdf3.40 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Alberta.

Chacaby, Maya. 2011. “Kipimoojikewin: Articulating Anishinaabe Pedagogy Through Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwe Language) Revitalization.” (adobe pdf591 KB) Master’s thesis, University of Toronto.

Counceller, April Gale Laktonen. 2010. “Nuigneliyukut (We Are Making New Words)” A Community Philosophy of Language Revitalization.” (adobe pdf4.90 MB) PhD diss., University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Daniels-Fiss, Belinda. 2008. “Learning to Be a Nêhiyaw (Cree) Through Language.” (adobe pdf108 KB) Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education: Studies of Migration, Integration, Equity, and Cultural Survival 2, 3: 2330245.

De Korne, Haley. 2009. “Indigenous Language Education Policy: Supporting Community-Controlled Immersion.” (adobe pdf946 KB) Master’s thesis, University of Victoria.

Epstein, Ruth. 2009. “The Languages We Speak: Aboriginal Learners and English as an Additional Language: A Literature Review of Promising Approaches and Practices Full Report. Manitoba Education." (adobe pdf308 KB)

Ferguson, Jenanne. 2011. “Flows of Language: Intergenerational Connections and Language Transmission Among dän k’è (Southern Tutchone) Speakers.” (adobe pdf221 KB) In An Anthropology of Mothering, edited by Michelle Walk and Naomi McPherson, 115-132. Bradford, ON: Demeter Press.

First Peoples Heritage, Language, and Culture Council. 2010. “Report on the Status of B.C. First Nations Languages 2010.”(adobe pdf2.02 MB)

Fredeen, Shirley Margaret. 1988. “A Foundation for Cree Immersion Education.” (adobe pdf16.27 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Saskatchewan.

Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu. 2010. “Multimedia Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization: Practical Educational Tools and Applications Used Within Native Communities.” (adobe pdf5.41 MB) PhD diss., University of Arizona.

Gardner, Ethel B. 2002. “Tset Híkwstexw Te Sqwélteltset, We Hold Our Languages High: The Meaning of Halq’eméylem Language Renewal in the Everyday Lives of Stó:lō People.” (adobe pdf26.85 MB) PhD diss., Simon Fraser University.

Godfrey, Ellen R. 2008. “The Impact of FirstVoices on Language Revitalization in Alert Bay.” (adobe pdf567 KB) Simon Fraser University: Centre for Policy Research on Science and Technology.

Gordon, Christopher, J. 2009. “Anishinaabemowin Pane: A Qualitative Exploratory Case Study of an Indigenous Language Immersion Revitalization Program.” (adobe pdf942 KB) PhD diss., Capella University.

Government of Northwest Territories. 2011. “Annual Report on Official Languages, 2010-2011.” (adobe pdf1.81 MB)

Government of Northwest Territories. 2009. “Revitalizing, Enhancing, and Promoting Aboriginal Languages: Strategies for Supporting Aboriginal Languages." (adobe pdf1.27 MB)

Government of Northwest Territories. 2003. “Government of Northwest Territories Response to the Final Report – Special Committee on the Review of the Official Language Act.” (adobe pdf372 KB)

Government of Nunavut. 2012. “Uqausivut: The Comprehensive Plan Pursuant to the Official Languages Act and the Inuit Language Protection Act, 2012-2016.” (adobe pdf873 KB)

Government of Nunavut. n.d. “Uqausivut: The Proposed Comprehensive Plan Pursuant to the Languages Act.” (adobe pdf633 KB)

Gresczyk Sr., Richard A. 2011. “Language Warriors; Leaders in the Ojibwe Language Revitalization Movement.” (adobe pdf1.02 MB) PhD diss., University of Minnesota.

Haque, Eve. 2005. “Multiculturalism Within a Bilingual Framework: Language and the Racial Ordering of Difference and Belonging in Canada.” (adobe pdf9.71 MB) PhD diss., University of Toronto.

Hermes, Mary and Kendall A. King. 2013. "Ojibwe Language Revitalization, Multimedia Technology, and Family Language Learning". (adobe pdf280 KB) Language Learning & Technology 17, 1: 125-144.

Hermes, Mary, Megan Bang, and Ananda Marin. 2012. “Designing indigenous language revitalization.” (adobe pdf2.98 MB) Harvard Educational Review 82, 3: 381-402, (Fall).

Hinton, Leanne. 2011. “Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: new teaching and learning strategies.” (adobe pdf121 KB) Language and Education 25, 4: 307-318. DOI:10.1080/09500782.2011.577220

Hudon, Marie-Ève. 2014. “Background Paper: Language Regimes in the Provinces and Territories.” (adobe pdf576 KB) Library of Parliament: Parliamentary and Information and Research Service.

Hudon, Marie-Ève. 2013. “Background Paper: The Role of the Courts in the Recognition of Language Rights.” (adobe pdf640 KB) Library of Parliament: Parliamentary Information and Research Service.

Johnson, Michele Kay S7imla7xw. 2013. “n’łεqwcin (clear speech): 1,000 hours to mid-intermediate N’syilxcn proficiency (Indigenous language, Syilx, Okanagan-Colville, n’qilxwcn, Interior Salish)(adobe pdf2.23 MB) PhD diss., University of British Columbia, Okanagan.

Johnson, Michele K. 2012. "K^sup w^u_sq^sup w^a?q^sup w^a?Álx (We Begin to Speak): Our Journey Within Nsyilxcn (Okanagan) Language Revitalization." (adobe pdf1.20 MB) Canadian Journal of Native Education 35, 1: 79-97.

Jonk, Luella Bernacki. 2009. “Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Mothers’ Views on Language Acquisition.(adobe pdf879 KB) PhD diss., University of Manitoba.

MacKay, Gail Ann. 2001. “Community Perceptions of a Cree Immersion Program at Cumberland House.” (adobe pdf10.28 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Saskatchewan.

Maracle, Bonnie Jane. 2002. “Adult Mohawk Language Immersion Programming”. (adobe pdf502 KB) McGill Journal of Education 37, 3: 387-403.

McCreery, Dale. 2013. “Challenges and Solutions in Adult Acquisition of Cree as a Second Language”. (adobe pdf843 KB) Master’s thesis, University of Victoria.

McIlwraith, Naomi Lynne. 2007. “Nitohta anohc. Nâkatohke. Now Listen. Listen Hard: A Creative Study of Nehiyawewin, the Plains Cree Language, and the Reasons for its Preservation.” (adobe pdf7.02 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Alberta.

McIvor, Onowa. 2012. “îkakwiy nîhiyawiyân: I am Learning [to be] Cree.” (adobe pdf2.81 MB) PhD diss., University of British Columbia.

McIvor, Onowa. 2005. “Building the Nests: Indigenous Language Revitalization in Canada Through Early Childhood Immersion Program.” (adobe pdf5.69 MB} Master’s thesis, University of Victoria.

Meek, Barbara Allyn. 2001. “Kaska Language Socialization, Acquistion and Shift.” (adobe pdf9.57 MB) PhD diss., University of Arizona.

Merle, Richards and David Maracle. 2002. “An Intensive Native Language Program for Adults: The Instructors Perspective.” (adobe pdf551 KB) McGill Journal of Education 37, 3: 371-385.

Michel, Kathryn A. 2012. “Trickster’s Path to Language Transformation: Stories of Secwepemc Immersion from Chief Ataham School.” (adobe pdf10 MB) PhD diss., University of British Columbia.

Moore, Danièle and Margaret Macdonald. 2013. “Language and Literacy Development in a Canadian Native Community: Halq’eméylem Revitalization in a Stó:lō Head Start Program in British Columbia.” (adobe pdf309 KB) The Modern Language Journal 97, 3: 702-719. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12028.x

Multilingual. 2014. “Annual Resource Directory.”(adobe pdf10.74 MB)

Nikkel, Walter. 2006. “Language Revitalization in Northern Manitoba: A Study of an Elementary School Cree Bilingual Program.” (adobe pdf652 KB) Master’s thesis, University of Manitoba.

Northwest Territories Education, Culture, and Employment. 2010. “Northwest Territories Aboriginal Languages Plan: A Shared Responsibility.” (adobe pdf988 KB)

O’Sullivan, Erin. 2010. “Aboriginal Language Use and Socioeconomic Well-Being: A Multilevel Analysis.” (adobe pdf7.58 MB) PhD diss., McMaster University.

Oehler, Alexander C. 2012. “Inuvialuit Language and Identity: Perspectives on the Symbolic Meaning of Inuvialuktun in the Canadian Western Arctic.”(adobe pdf1.52 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Northern British Columbia.

Office of the Language Commissioner of Nunavut. 2012. “Ukiuqtamaat Kangiqhidjutaut Annual Report, 2011-2012.” (adobe pdf1.88MB)

Owens, Claire. 2011. “Language and Cultural Identity: Perceptions of the Role of Language in the Construction of Aboriginal Identities.” (adobe pdf10 MB) Master’s thesis, Carleton University.

Parker, Aliana Violet. 2012. “Learning the Language of the Land.” (adobe pdf1.31 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Victoria.

Poulette, Adriana. 2007. “Yohahi:yo Yakothahol∧:u : She Has Found a Good Path A Discussion of Commitment to Onyota’a:ka Language Revitalization.” (adobe pdf241 KB) Master’s thesis, University of Victoria.

Rosborough, Patricia, Christine. 2012.  K angextola Sewn-On-Top: Kwak’wala Revitalization and Being Indigenous.” (adobe pdf5.81 MB) PhD diss., University of British Columbia.

Sarkar, Mela and Mali A’n Metallic. 2009. “Indigenizing the Structural Syllabus: The Challenge of Revitalizing Mi’gmaq in Listuguj.” (adobe pdf437 KB) The Canadian Modern Language Review 66, 1: 49-71.

Schreyer, Christine Elizabeth. 2009. “Reserves and Resources: Local Rhetoric on Land, Language, and Identity amongst the Taku River Tlingit and the Loon River Cree First Nations.” (adobe pdf235 MB) PhD Diss., University of Alberta.

Sherry-Kirk, Laurie. 2014. “Indigenous Language Reclamation – The Learners Perspective.” (adobe pdf984 KB) Master’s thesis, Brock University.

"Standing Committee on Government Operations. 2009." (adobe pdf1.84 MB) 16th Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories Final Report on the Review of the Official Languages Act 2008-2009: Reality Check: Securing a Future for Official Languages of the Northwest Territories.

Styres, Sandra D. 2008. “Language Shifting Among the Hodenosaunee of Southern Ontario Edwaenagé: tsgó – Shogwaya> dihs> oh nidwawenó:de: shogwá:wi: tsáhohwejáda:t Let Us All Raise the Song: The Creator This Language He Has Given Us When He Created Earth.” (adobe pdf5.40 MB) Master’s thesis, Brock University.

Thompson, Edōsdi Judith Charlotte. 2012. “Hedekeyeh Hots’ih Kāhidi – “Our Ancestors Are In Us”: Strengthening Our Voices Through Language Revitalization from Tahltan Worldview.” (adobe pdf2.20 MB) PhD diss., University of Victoria.

Thorburn, Jennifer. 2006. “Language Attitudes and Use in the Innu Community of Sheshatshiu, Labrador.” (adobe pdf9.05 MB) Master’s thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Usborne, Esther, Julie Caouette, Qiallak Qumaaluk, and Donald M. Taylor. 2009. “Bilingual Education in an Aboriginal Context: Examining the Transfer of Language Skills from Inuktitut to English or French.” (adobe pdf145 KB) International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 12: 667-684. DOI: 10.1080/13670050802684388

Valencia, José Aldemar Álvarez. 2014. “Language, Learning, and Identity in Social Networking Sites for Language Learning: The Case of Busuu.” (adobe pdf1.98MB) PhD diss., University of Arizona.

Wiltse, Lynne Valerie. 1995. “The River Flows Both Ways: Native Language Loss and Maintenance.” (adobe pdf7.48 MB) Master’s thesis, University of Alberta.

Young, Mary Isabelle. 2003. “Pimatisiwin: Walking in a Good Way – A Narrative Inquiry into Language as Identity.” (adobe pdf4.62 MB) PhD diss., University of Alberta.